Types of Surgery

A colostomy is a stoma created from part of the colon (also called the large bowel or large intestine). The surgeon makes a small opening in the abdomen and brings a portion of the colon out through the opening. This portion of colon is used to make the stoma. A colostomy may be permanent or temporary.

colotomyWhy a colostomy is made

If the bowel (intestine) is infected or inflamed, and needs time to heal and rest, the surgeon may perform a temporary colostomy.
The surgeon will leave the rectum and anus in place so that the bowel can be reconnected later. This type of surgery is known as a Hartmann’s Procedure. Once the bowel is reconnected, the stool once again passes through the rectum and anus. If the rectum and anus are removed, the colostomy is permanent.

Colostomy surgery is commonly done to treat rectal cancer, diverticulitis, rectal fistulas and trauma to the rectal area.

An ileostomy is a stoma made from a part of the ileum, the last section of the small bowel. (You may also hear the term “small intestine”. Intestine and bowel
mean the same thing.) To make an ileostomy, the surgeon brings the ileum through a small incision on the abdomen to make a stoma.

urostomyAn ileostomy can be temporary or permanent, and the stoma formed can be an end stoma or a loop stoma.

Why an ileostomy is made

Ileostomy surgery is performed most often for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s or Ulcerative Colitis) or rectal cancer.

A urostomy is necessary when the bladder is removed or bypassed.  The most common type of urostomy is called an ileal conduit.

To make an ileal conduit, the surgeon takes a piece of ileum  (the last section of the small bowel) out of the digestive system, keeping it connected to its nerve and blood supply.

The rest of digestive system is reconnected so that it functions normally.

Male torso with kidneys, ureters, and urethra showing total cystectomy with incontinent urinary diversion SOURCE: Pickup from 60550A_1 kidneys, ureters, silhouette from 116226. Some elements also used in Exit Writer 116663 Urethritis and 116457 http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/urinary_reconstruction_and_diversion/hic_urinary_reconstruction_and_diversion.aspx Smith's General Urology 16th ed.The surgeon takes the piece of bowel that was separated from the digestive system and attaches the ureters (tubes that take urine from the kidney to the bladder) at one end. Then the surgeon brings the other end through the abdominal wall to make a stoma. When the kidneys produce urine, the urine will travel down from the kidneys, through the ureters, and into the ileal conduit. Then urine will travel through the ileal conduit and out the stoma.

Why a urostomy is made

Some reasons it might be necessary to have surgery to create an ileal conduit include bladder cancer and birth defects of the urinary tract.